DENTAL AMALGAM MERCURY SYNDROME ............................ www.dams.cc
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Mercury Vapor Causes Neurological Developmental and Behavioral Effects at Lower Levels than Other Forms of Mercury.
1. Mercury vapor is lipid soluble and has an affinity for red blood cells and Central Nervous System(CNS) cells. Mercury vapor is the most significant exposure from dental amalgam fillings and dental office exposures. (506,303)
2. Only a few micrograms of mercury severely disturb cellular function and inhibits nerve growth. Prenatal or neonatal exposures have been found to have life long effects on nerve function and other toxic developmental effects.
3. Elemental mercury vapor is more rapidly transmitted throughout the body than other forms of mercury and has more toxic effects on the CNS and other parts of the body.
4. Exposure to mercury vapor causes rapid transmittal across the blood-brain barrier and through the placenta of pregnant women to the fetus and significant developmental effects.
5. Developmental learning and behavioral effects have been found from mercury vapor at much lower levels than for exposure to methyl mercury.
6. More people have immune reactions to mercury vapor/inorganic mercury than to methyl mercury. Immune reactions to mercury are documented to cause autoimmunity and autoimmune conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS), fibromyalgia, lupus, multiple sclerosis(MS), rheumatoid arthritis, ALS, etc.
7. Mercury vapor and inorganic mercury are methylated in the body to methyl mercury by bacteria, yeast, and other methyl donors. (53,506,51)
8. Dental amalgam fillings are the largest source of both inorganic and methyl mercury in most people with amalgam. (506)
There is a lot of misunderstanding about the toxic effects significance of the various types of mercury people are exposed to: vapor, inorganic, organic(methyl) mercury. The American Dental Assoc., some at Gov't agencies, and other researchers have argued that methyl mercury is much more toxic than other forms, and mercury from fish thus a more important problem than vapor from fillings. However the pharmakinetics of mercury in the body is complex and the evidence seems contrary to that.
Mercury vapor may be the biggest problem even for equal exposures, in addition to the fact it is well documented that mercury from fillings is the number one source of both inorganic and methyl mercury in most people(506), since elemental and inorganic mercury in the body are methylized to methyl mercury by bacteria in the mouth and intestines, and by yeast and other methyl donors (51,53,54,225). Some people tested who do not eat fish have been found to have high levels of methyl mercury . An interesting finding is evidence that indicates that mercury vapor is 10 times more toxic to the fetal brain than methyl mercury(287,305). Richardson(paper for Swedish Scientific Panel FRN-1999) has estimated that about 20% of the population suffers a subclinical impairment of kidney or CNS function related to amalgam mercury.
Some references from the paper (500) on this are the following:
Mercury vapor is lipid soluble and has an affinity for red blood cells and CNS cells (21,303). Only a few micrograms of mercury severely disturb cellular function and inhibits nerve growth (175,147,226,255,303,305,149). Prenatal or neonatal exposures have been found to have life long effects on nerve function and susceptibility to toxic effects. Prenatal mercury vapor exposure that results in levels of only 4 parts per billion in newborn rat brains was found to cause decreases in nerve growth factor and other effects(305). Elemental mercury vapor is more rapidly transmitted throughout the body than most other forms of mercury and has more toxic effects on the CNS and other parts of the body according to the World Health Organization and other studies(38,183,265,282,287). Exposure to mercury vapor causes rapid transmittal across the blood-brain barrier and through the placenta of pregnant women to the fetus (38,85,113,146,162,262, 265, 281,287)-much more damage to the fetus than for maternal exposure to inorganic mercury(265,281,287,38) and significant developmental effects(305).
The risk of impact on fetal development from exposure to mercury vapor was pointed out in the government risk analysis of 1997. Later results pointed out an increased risk for women who are exposed to mercury in their workplace to give birth to children that are small compared to the time of pregnancy. Adding to this are animal experiments indicating a restriction on the development of the brain. The results of these experiments are a restricted cognitive and motor function. Such effects fall within the normal variation of the population. These animal experiments resembles those seen after exposure to methyl mercury. The dose of mercury giving this effect has however been approx. 10 times lower compared to the dose of mercury giving this effect when exposed to methyl mercury (4). It is only through epidemiologic studies, utilizing neuropsychiatric test batteries and possibly neurophysiologic methods that it is possible to show these effects .
A doctor with extensive experience in researching and treating mercury toxicity has found that blocked nerve ganglions are a common cause of seizures, migraines, and other chronic neurological problems(5). Based on his experience Dr. Klinghardt has found that the largest cause of such conditions are due to dental metals (303). He finds that after treatment to unblock the ganglions and mercury detox, most patients rapidly recover from such conditions. Numerous other doctors whom he has trained through seminars and courses have had similar experience. He finds that mercury vapor from dental amalgam can cause such ganglion blockages at very low levels of exposure.
Developmental learning and behavioral effects have been found from mercury vapor at much lower levels than for exposure to methyl mercury. (287,304,276e,etc.). The OSHA health standard level for mercury vapor in air is 50% lower than for organic mercury in air, as is the ATSDR MRL(217).
More people have autoimmune reactions, related to chronic autoimmune conditions, to mercury vapor/inorganic mercury than to methyl mercury(60,303,313). Immune reactions to mercury are documented to cause autoimmunity and autoimmune conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome(CFS), fibromyalgia, lupus, mutiple sclerosis(MS), rheumatoid arthritis, ALS, etc.(500,303)
(4) Mats Berlin, “Dental Materials and Health” , SOU 2003:53, appendix 2, page 264,
(5) Migraines, Seizures, and Mercury Toxicity; Klinghardt D. Alternative Medicine Magazine, Issue 21 Dec, 1997 / Jan, 1998. http://www.healingartscenter.com/Library/articles/art10.htm
(21) R.A.Goyer,”Toxic effects of metals”in: Caserett and Doull’s Toxicology- TheBasic Science of Poisons, McGraw-Hill Inc., N.Y., 1993;
(38) Ziff S. and Ziff M. Infertility and Birth Defects: Is Mercury from Dental Fillings a Hidden Cause?, Bio-Probe, Inc. ISBN: 0-941011-03-8.1987
(51) Methylation of Mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral Streptococci. Heintz, Edwardson, Derand, Birkhed Scan. J. Dent. Res. 1983, 91:150‑152; & W.A.Sellars et al, Univ. Of Texas Southwestern Medical School, "Methyl Mercury in the Human Mouth from Dental Amalgams", Journal of Nutritioanl & Environmental Medicine(1996), 6:33‑36; & The Methylation of Mercuric Chloride by Human Intestinal Bacteria. Rowland, Grasso, Davies Experientia. Basel 1975 ,31: 1064‑1065
(53) Guzzi G, Minoia C, Pigatto PD, Severi G. Methylmercury, amalgams, and children’s health. Environ Health Perspect. 2006; 114:149;
(54) Formation of methyl Mercury Compounds from inorganic Mercury . by Chlostridium cochlearium Yamada, Tonomura J Ferment Technol1972 50:159‑1660
(225) S. Yannai et al, "Transformationss of inorganic mercury by candida albicans and saccharomyces cerevisiae", Applied Envir Microbiology,1991, 57:245‑247; & I.R.Rowland et al, "The methylization of mercuric chloride
by human intestinal bacteria", Experentia, Sept 1975, 31(9):1064‑5.
(57) N.Campbell & M.Godfrey,“Confirmation of Mercury Retention and Toxicity using DMPS provocation” ,J of Advancement in Medicine, 7(1) 1994;(80 cases);
(60) Stejskal K. Automimmune reactions related to exposure to inorganic
mercury common. www.melisa.org
(85) J.A.Weiner et al,"The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and predictor variables",138(1-3):101-115,1993; & "An estimation of the uptake of mercury from amalgam fillings", Sci Total Environ,v168,n3, p255-265, 1995.
(113) M.J.Vimy et al, Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury released from amalgam fillings", Am J Physiol 258:R939-R945,1990. See also (238)
(146) T.Colborn(Ed.),Chemically Induced Atlerations in Functional Development, Princeton Scientific Press,1992 & Developmental Effects of Endocrine- Disrupting Chemicals",Eniron Heath Perspectives, V 101, No.5, Oct 1993.
(147) M.Wood,"Mechanisms for the Neurotoxicity of Mercury", in Organotransitional Metal Chemistry, Plenum Publishing Corp, N.Y, N.Y, 1987. & R.P. Sharma et al, “Metals and Neurotoxic Effects”, J of Comp Pathology, Vol 91, 1981.
(149) B.Choi et al, "Abnormal neuronal migration of human fetal brain", Journal of Neurophalogy, Vol 37, p719-733, 1978; & L.Larkfors et al,"Methyl mercury induced alterations in the nerve growth factor level in the developing brain ", Res Dev Res,62(2),1991,287-
(162) N.K.Mottet et al, "Health Risks from Increases in Methylmercury Exposure",vol63:133-140,1985.
(175) F. Monnet-Tschudi et al, “Comparison of the developmental effects of 2 mercury compounds on glial cells and neurons in the rat telencephalon”, Brain Research, 1996, 741: 52-59; & Chang LW, Hartmann HA, “Quantitative cytochemical studies of RNA in experimental mercury poisoning”, Acta Neruopathol(Berlin), 1973, 23(1):77-83.
(183) World Health Organization(WHO),1991, Environmental Health Criteria 118, Inorganic Mercury, WHO, Geneva; & Environ metal Health. Criterion. 101, Methyl Mercury; 1990.
(216) T.W. Clarkson et al, in Biological Monitoring of Toxic Metals, 1988,Plenum Press, N.Y., “The prediction of intake of mercury vapor from amalgams”,p199-246 & p247-260; Environmental Health Perspective, 1993,April, 100:31-8; & F.L. Lorscheider et al, Lancet, 1991, 337,p1103.
(217) Apr 19,1999 Media Advisory, New MRLs for toxic substances, MRL:elemental mercury vapor/inhalation/chronic & MRL: methyl mercury/ oral/acute; & http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html
& Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA), www.osha-slc.gov/SLTC/pel/
(226)(a)B.J. Shenker et al, Dept. Of Pathology, Univ. Of Penn. School of Dental Med.,”Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes: Alterations in cell viability” Immunopharmacologicol Immunotoxical, 1992, 14(3):555-77; & M.A.Miller et al, “Mercuric chloride induces apoptosis in human T lymphocytes”, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 153(2):250‑7 1998;& Rossi AD,Viviani B, Vahter M. Inorganic mercury modifies Ca2+ signals, triggers apoptosis, and potentiates NMDA toxicity in cerebral granule neurons. Cell Death and Differentiation 1997; 4(4):317-24. & Goering PL, Thomas D, Rojko JL, Lucas AD. Mercuric chloride-induced apoptosis is dependent on protein synthesis. Toxicol Lett 1999; 105(3): 183-95;
(260) J.S. Woods et al, “Urinary porphyrin profiles as biomarker of mercury exposure: studies on dentists”, J Toxicol Environ Health, 40(2-3):1993, p235-; & “Altered porphyrin metabolites as a biomarker of mercury exposure and toxicity”, Physiol Pharmocol, 1996,74(2):210-15, & Canadian J Physiology and Pharmacology, Feb 1996; & M.D.Martin et al, “Validity of urine samples for low-level mercury exposure assessment and relationship to porphyrin and creatinine excretion rates”, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, Apr 1996 & J.S. Woods et al, “Effects of Porphyrinogenic Metals on Coproporphrinogen Oxidase in Liver and Kidney” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol 97, 183-190, 1989.
(262) L.W.Chang, "Neurotoxic effects of mercury", Environ. Res.,1977, 14:329-(265)M.R.Greenwood et al, "Transfer of metallic mercury into the fetus", Experientia, 28:1455-1456, 1972.
(265) K.Lohmann et al, “Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Disorder in patients with neurotoxic illnesses”, Gesundheitswesen, 1996, 58(6):322-31.
(281) T.W. Clarkson et al, "Transport of elemental mercury into fetal tissues", Biol. Neonate. 21:239-244, 1972.
(287) M.C. Newland et al,"Behavioral consequences of in utero exposure to mercury vapor", Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology, 1996, 139: 374-386; & K.Warfvinge et al, "Mercury distribution in neonatal cortical areas ...after exposure to mercury vapor",Environmental Research, 1994, 67:196-208.
(304) M.J.Vimy et al, “Mercury from Maternal Silver Tooth Fillings: a source of neonatal exposure”, Biological Trace Element Research, 56: 143-52,1997.
(305) Soderstrom S, Fredriksson A, Dencker L, Ebendal T, “The effect of mercury vapor on cholinergic neurons in the fetal brain, Brain Research & Developmental Brain Res, 1995, 85:96-108; & Toxicol Lett 1995; 75(1-3):133-44.; & E.M. Abdulla et al, “Comparison of neurite outgrowth with neurofilament protein levels In neuroblastoma cells following mercuric oxide exposure”, Clin Exp Pharmocol Physiol, 1995, 22(5): 362-3;
& Leong CC, Syed NI, Lorscheider FL. Retrograde degeneration of neurite membrane structural integrity of nerve growth cones following in vitro exposure to mercury. Neuroreport 2001 Mar 26;12(4):733-7
(313) V.D.M.Stejskal et al, “Mercury-specific Lymphocytes: an indication of mercury allergy in man”, J. Of Clinical Immunology, 1996, Vol 16(1);31-40; & Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Stejskal VDM et al, Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters 1999
(500) B.Windham, Health Effects of amalgam fillings and results of replacement of amalgam filings. Over 2000 medical study references(most in Medline) documenting common high mercury exposures from amalgam, mechanisms by which mercury causes over 30 chronic conditions, and that vapor from amalgam is the most dangerous form of mercury to the fetus, along with results of approx. 60,000 clinical cases of those conditions of amalgam replacement followed by doctors; www.flcv.com/amalg6.html
(503) Center for Chemical Hazard Assessment, Potential Occupational Hazards: Dentistry, Syracuse Research, Contract No.210-78-0019, 1980; & Merck Manuel, 14th Edition, p1552.
(506) Leistevuo J et al, Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Caries Res 2001 May-Jun;35(3):163-6; & www.flcv.com/damspr1.html
National contact person: Bernie Windham email@example.com 850-878-9024