Autism and Schizophrenia subgroup related to blockage by toxic exposures of enzymes processing gluten and casein,
B.Windham (Ed), 2008
(affects at least 65% of autistic children (100) ) (overlaps with other mechanisms documented in (110) )
I. Enzymatic Inhibitation by mercury (and other toxic metals)
A direct mechanism involving mercury’s inhibition of cellular enzymatic processes by binding with the hydroxyl radical(SH) in amino acids appears to be a major part of the connection to allergic/immune reactive conditions(15-23,28,36,47,51,98). For example mercury has been found to strongly inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase(16) and dipeptyl peptidase (DPP IV) which are required in the digestion of the wheat protein gluten or the milk protein casein (15,17,19,20,22a,24,-26,31,98, 105) - the same protein that is cluster differentiation antigen 26 (CD26) which helps T lymphocyte activation. CD26 or DPPIV is a cell surface glycoprotein that is very susceptible to inactivation by mercury binding to its cysteinyl domain. Mercury and other toxic metals also inhibit binding of opioid receptor agonists to opioid receptors, while magnesium stimulates binding to opioid receptors(15). Studies involving a large sample of patients with autism, schizophrenia, or mania found that over 90 % of those tested had high levels of the milk protein beta-casomorphine-7 in their blood and urine and defective enzymatic processes for digesting milk protein(24,25,27), and similarly for the corresponding enzyme needed to digest wheat gluten (24,26). Like casein, gluten breaks down into molecules with opioid traits, called gluteomorphine. As with caseomorphin, it too can retain biological activity if the enzymes needed to digest it are not functioning properly.
in bovine milk are a common source of bioactive peptides. The peptides are
released by the digestion of caseins and whey proteins (105). In vitro the bioactive peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (
The studies also found high levels of Ig A antigen specific antibodies
for casein, lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin
and IgG and IgM for
casein. Beta-casomorphine-7 is a morphine like
compound that results in neural disfunction (24,25),
as well as being a direct histamine releaser in humans and inducing skin
reactions (14,21,25c). Similarly many
also had a corresponding form of gluten protein with similar effects(24,26). Elimination of milk and wheat products and
sulfur foods from the diet has been found to improve the condition of
II. Lactose Intolerance
Lactose (milk sugar), which is a major component of milk, is a disaccharide sugar made up of the simple sugars glucose and galactose(5). Lactase is an enzyme which facilitates digestion of lactose. Over 50% of non-Caucasians are lactose intolerant, to a significant degree and about 20% of Caucasians. Infants are most lactose tolerant but lactase activity declines dramatically over time so that by adulthood to about 5 to 10 % of the level of infants. Only a relatively small percentage of people retain enough lactase activity to absorb significant amounts of lactose throughout their adult life (5). Lactose intolerance results in undigested lactose in the intestines which often causes gas, bloating, abdominal discomfort, and proliferation of bacteria in the intestines. In addition to inhibiting the enzymes required to digest milk casein and whey, chronic mercury exposure in animals has also been found to inhibit lactase and glucose-6-phosphatase needed to digest lactose and other polysaccharides (31). Thus chronic exposure to mercury and toxic metals also increases lactose intolerance and digestion problems of carbohydrates in general. Digestive problems have been found to commonly be improved by reducing chronic mercury and toxic metal exposures.
Lactose intolerance can also be alleviated to some degree by supplemental enzymes, using fermented milk products such as yogurt or kefir, or using only small amounts of milk products spread throughout the day(5).
A new study has found that there has been a significant increase in another gluten related condition in the last 50 years –celiac disease (32). The researchers showed that the presence of undiagnosed celiac disease was 4 to 4.5-fold greater in the more recent subject group compared to an earlier Warren Air Force Base group. This study indicates that the rise in the prevalence of celiac disease over the last 50 years is not simply due to increased awareness and better diagnostic tests for this condition. Additionally, the fact that the mortality rate of undiagnosed celiac disease is almost 4-fold higher than for those without the condition suggests that screening for celiac disease instead of waiting for a patient to complain of symptoms may be warranted. A positive test result should be confirmed before undergoing a gluten-free diet. The study authors concluded, “During 45 years of follow-up, undiagnosed celiac disease was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of death. The prevalence of undiagnosed celiac disease seems to have increased dramatically in the United States during the past 50 years.” Studies have also found that untreated celiac disease can result in infertility, spontaneous abortions, and birth defects, along with other reproductive system problems (10).
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(10) Dr. Sheila Crowe, Division of gastroenterology and hepatology in the department of medicine at the University of Virginia, New York Times February 3, 2010
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